Design of Experiments (DoE) for Process Development and Validation

Design of Experiments (DoE) is a very important process development and validation component in several kinds of industries. DoE for process development and validation involves carrying out a number of tests recurrently and steadily over a period of time. Its responses are then observed.

DoE is important for process development and validation as it offers an understanding of the predictability and reproducibility of an experiment. Fundamentally, Design of Experiments for process development and validation seeks to rule out fluke or chance in the methods needed for bringing about control for a product.

DoE in medical devices

In the area of medical devices, guidelines for Design of Experiments for process development and validation are set out in the Global Harmonization Task Force (GHTF) Process Validation Guidance for Medical Device Manufacturers. This document offers guidance in the area of Design of Experiments for process development and validation by suggesting the exact areas in which design of experiments should be applied during Process Validation.

The GHTF guidance also suggests the use of both screening and response surface designs during Operational Qualification. It further requires Design of Experiments for process development and validation to be used during various phases of design controls. These include:

o  Design and development planning

o  Design verification

o  Design validation

o  Design transfer

o  Design changes.

Get a full understanding of Design of Experiments for process development and validation

The ways of approaching Design of Experiments for process development and validation will be topic of a two-day seminar that is being organized by GlobalCompliancePanel, a highly respected provider of professional trainings for the areas of regulatory compliance.

Jim Wisnowski, who is the cofounder of Adsurgo LLC and co-author of the book Design and Analysis of Experiments by Douglas Montgomery: A Supplement for using JMP, will be the Director at this seminar. In order to gain a full understanding of the principles and application of Design of Experiments for process development and validation; please register for this seminar by visiting http://www.globalcompliancepanel.com/control/globalseminars/~product_id=900794?linkedin-SEO .

This seminar has been pre-approved by RAPS as eligible for up to 12 credits towards a participant’s RAC recertification upon full completion.

All about Design of Experiments for process development and validation

This seminar will offer total and all-round understanding of all the aspects of Design of Experiments for process development and validation.

Process development studies need to be completed before a process control plan is developed as part of an overall risk management strategy. These process development studies help gain knowledge and understanding about the impact of variation in process parameters on the variation in the product quality characteristics of the product.

An explanation of the methods used

The methodology of Design of Experiments for process development and validation offers a means for identifying process parameters, which impact product quality (critical process parameters) and determine the functional relationship that links the process parameters to those critical quality attributes.

Design of Experiments for process development and validation uses screening designs such as 2k factorial and D-optimal designs to determine critical process parameters. Design of Experiments for process development and validation use response surface designs, such as Central Composite Designs (CCDs) and I-optimal designs for fashioning the functional relationship between those critical process parameters and the critical quality attributes.

A primer on statistical analysis

This seminar on Design of Experiments for process development and validation will present a primer on statistical analysis, during which it will focus on the methods required for analysis of designed experiments. Jim will then move on to the steps to a proper DoE, during the process of which he will demonstrate the nature and uses of important risk management tools such as Ishikawa and FMEA, which can be used pre and post DOE studies.

The Director will also teach how to generate and analyze multiple screening and response surface designs, and why and how each are used. After teaching participants how to present the results, Jim will explain how to update the risk management tools using the results of the studies.

This session on Design of Experiments for process development and validation will cover the following areas:

o  Identify critical quality attributes (CQAs) that will be used as responses in your designs

o  Utilize risk management tools to identify and prioritize potential critical process parameters

o  Identify critical process parameters and develop a functional relationship between those process parameters and your critical-to-quality attributes (CQAs) using both screening and response surface designs

o  Be able to design and analyze screening designs including a factorial, fractional factorial, and D-optimal design

o  Understand the need for adding center points to a design

o  Be able to design and analyze response surface designs including central composite designs (CCDs), Box-Behnken designs, and I-optimal designs

o  Present results of DOE studies

o  Use systematic understanding from DOE studies to update the control plan that is part of the overall risk management plan.

All about HIPAA compliance

all-in-one-HIPAA-Compliance

HIPAA compliance is a must for Covered Entities and their Business Associates. It is a sine qua non requirement from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), a US federal department that is charged with the responsibility of enhancing and protecting the wellbeing and health of all Americans. It provides the means for bringing about effective health, as well as human services. Its mission is to engender improvements and developments in the fields of public health, medicine and social services.

The HHS requires complete compliance with its laws by a Covered Entity and its Business Associate. The HHS’ Office for Civil Rights (OCR) considers Covered Entity as one that is involved in generating, storing, receiving or transmitting electronic Protected Health Information (PHI). A Business Associate is one that does all these on behalf of its affiliated CE. HIPAA compliance is mandatory because the nature of information that Business Associates carry with them –Protected Health Information –is of a highly confidential and sensitive nature. Not only that; when there is a breach of data on the part of the Business Associate or the Covered Entity, it results in huge costs by way of damages. Data breaches also carry a bigger penalty: They dent the reputation of the business, something no money can compensate.

Locating the source of data breach

Most of the patient information breaches take place at the Business Associate’s end. This makes compliance with HIPAA compliance rules by BA’s all the more important. The basic reason for which most such breaches take place is the many misconceptions that abound among healthcare organizations about the nature of the HIPAA privacy and security regulations. What these regulations are, what they mean to healthcare organizations, and the steps that the healthcare organizations, Covered Entities and their Business Associates need to do –all these are areas of considerable confusion.

It is to equip professionals from the healthcare industry with the complete knowledge needed to understand and implement HIPAA compliance that GlobalCompliancePanel, a highly popular provider of professional trainings for all the areas of regulatory compliance, will be organizing a two-day seminar.

A complete roundup of HIPAA compliance

Senior healthcare professional Jim Wener, who brings four decades of experience in the industry and has been assisting providers and payers in identifying their automation requirements and helping them select and successfully implement the ideal automation for their needs, will the Director of this seminar. To gain the benefit of the vast experience that Jim brings and to ensure total HIPAA compliance for your organization; please register for this seminar by logging on to http://www.globalcompliancepanel.com/control/globalseminars/~product_id=900874?wordpress-SEO.

Questions, questions, questions

At this seminar, Jim will take the participants through HIPAA compliance from start to compliance. He will provide answers to all the questions that Business Associates and Covered Entities face during the process of ensuring HIPAA compliance. He will show what healthcare organizations need to do to secure their healthcare information.

Some of the questions that he will seek to answer include:

Do the HIPAA regulations apply to the organization? What risks does the organization face, and how does it mitigate these risks? What is it that the organization is required to do, and how is this done? Is there a role assigned for and expected of the organization’s computer resources in assessing and managing HIPAA compliance risks? What is the level of safety that the healthcare organization’s computer and paper patient information carry? Is there a way by which the organization determines if its computer resources provide the needed features and functions for the organization to become compliant?

Diligence can lessen the severity of penalties

These are just some of the questions for which Jim will seek to provide answers. Framing these questions and answering them is a watertight means to developing and executing a compliant plan. This in turn is critical to ensure that the organization takes the right path in ensuring HIPAA compliance. A breach is a very bad thing to happen for an organization, but diligence that the organization has showed in protecting patient information will go a long way in mitigating penalties. This is one of the prime reasons for which attendance at this seminar is necessary.

  • What is HIPAA, who is covered and what is HIPAA Compliance
  • Why the healthcare organization should be concerned about HIPAA compliance
  • How to perform a HIPAA Risk Assessment
  • How to prepare HIPAA Policies and Procedures
  • How to perform HIPAA Training
  • What is IT’s role in the healthcare organization’s HIPAA Compliance
  • How to prepare a Business Continuation/Disaster Recovery Plan
  • How to handle a potential HIPAA Breach.

https://www.hhs.gov/about/index.html

 

Today’s Article on Understanding the HIPAA Privacy Rule, Security Rule and Breach Notification Rules and their compliance

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)’s Privacy, Security, and Breach Notification Rules are aimed at protecting the privacy, as well as the security aspects of health information. This set of rules has the intention of providing individuals with some rights on information relating to their health.

This is how the three rules need to be understood:

The Privacy Rule: Sets out standards about the conditions to be met for using and disclosing Protected Health Information (PHI). This Rule applies nationally.

The Security Rule: Specifies the kinds of safeguards that Covered Entities and Business Associates have to put in place and implement for protecting electronic Protected Health Information (ePHI) and ensure that they remain confidential and are made available when required, and have integrity.

The Breach Notification Rule: Covered Entities have to report breach of unsecured PHI to the affected individuals and the HHS. In some situations, this has to be reported to the media, as well. The Breach Notification Rule has details on how this is to be done. Generally, a window period of 60 days is given from the date of detection of the breach. Small breaches, meaning breaches that affect lesser than 500 individuals, may be directly reported to the HHS annually.

Purview of the HIPAA Privacy Rule and Security Rule

Privacy Rule: HIPAA Privacy Rule has standards on how to protect PHI held by the following: Health plans, healthcare clearinghouses, healthcare providers; part of whose healthcare transactions are carried out electronically, and Business Associates

Security Rule: HIPAA Security Rule sets out standards and guidelines on the steps that Covered Entities and Business Associates have to take to ensure that Protected Health Information is confidential, has integrity and is made available when needed. The Security Rule describes how these qualities in the ePHI created, maintained or transmitted by them.

Knowledge of all these aspects is very necessary if the Covered Entity or Business Associate has to ensure HIPAA compliance. The task of HIPAA compliance does not become possible with just a reading of the rules and the procedures. Expert advice on how to actually implement the requirements is needed.

This is what a two-day seminar from GlobalCompliancePanel, a leading provider of professional trainings for the regulatory compliance areas, will offer. At this seminar, Jim Sheldon Dean, Director of Compliance Services, Lewis Creek Systems, LLC, will be the Director.

In order to gain complete understanding of the HIPAA Privacy Rule, Security Rule and the Breach Notification Rules, and to understand ways by which to ensure compliance with them in a way that satisfies the regulatory authorities, please register for this seminar by logging on to http://www.globalcompliancepanel.com/control/globalseminars/~product_id=900754?linkedin-SEO .

Jim Sheldon Dean will explain the requirements of HIPAA, how to prevent incidents, and how to survive audits, so that penalties can be avoided. He will offer an explanation of the background to HIPAA, and detail what a manager of healthcare information privacy and security has to know about the most important privacy and security issues. He will also show how to ensure HIPAA compliance, and explain the consequences of inadequate HIPAA compliance.

This seminar will provide in-depth understanding on the major aspects of HIPAA compliance, such as:

o  The new features of the regulations

o  The recent changes

o  The aspects that Covered Entities and Business Associates need to address if they have to remain compliant.

Learning on all aspects of HIPAA Privacy Rule, Security Rule and Breach Notification Rules

Jim will also explain audits and enforcements. He will also describe privacy and security breaches and explain how to avoid them. He will enrich the learning by providing sample documents and references.

Jim will cover the following areas at this two-day session:

o  Overview of HIPAA Regulations

o  HIPAA Privacy Rule Principles, Policies and Procedures

o  Recent and Proposed Changes to the HIPAA Rules

o  HIPAA Security Rule Principles

o  HIPAA Security Policies and Procedures and Audits

o  Risk Analysis for Security and Meaningful Use

o  Risk Mitigation and Compliance Remediation

o  Documentation, Training, Drills and Self-Audits.

https://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/Downloads/HIPAAPrivacyandSecurityTextOnly.pdf

Ensuring that analytical data in laboratories are accurate, reliable and consistent

Ensuring that analytical data are reliable, consistent and accurate is the fundamental reason for which analytical methods and procedures need to be validated. The employment of proper scientific methods and procedures by laboratories and validating them ensures the reliability, consistency and accuracy of the analytical data.

The purpose of doing so is to corroborate the suitability of intended use of a particular test and to confirm that the product produced in the laboratory meets the requirements of quality, purity, identity and strength in the required and set measure.

The imperative for validation of analytical data

The reason for which analytical data has to be validated for the criteria described above can be summarized in the following:

o  Because of the direct relationship it has to the quality of the data it validates;

o  To make sure that the analytical data is trustworthy;, and

o  Finally, validation, verification and transfer of analytical methods are a regulatory requirement, as set out by the different regulatory bodies such as the FDA and the EMA, and standards such as the USP and ICH.

Method validation and compendial methods

Of late, method validation has been receiving very high attention from both regulatory agencies and industry task forces alike. Both the FDA and the EMA have recently released guidelines on method validation and transfer. In addition, USP has suggested new chapters for approaches to the following:

o  Integrated validation

o  Verification and transfer of analytical procedures

o  Equivalency testing and for statistical evaluation.

What about compendial methods?

The verification of compendial methods is needed to demonstrate two aspects:

o  The suitability of laboratories to successfully run the method, and

o  To demonstrate through testing that transfer of methods, when carried on between laboratories, is successful. When a laboratory intends to use an alternative method in place of a compendial method, verification of compendial measures should establish the equivalency of the alternative method.

Comprehensive learning on validation, verification and transfer of analytical methods

A two-day seminar from GlobalCompliancePanel, a leading provider of professional trainings for all the areas of regulatory compliance will address all the issues relating to validation, verification and transfer of analytical methods. At this seminar, Ludwig Huber, the director and editor of Labcompliance, the global online resource for validation and compliance and highly respected author of several books on compliance, will be Director.

To gain the full knowledge of all areas relating to validation, verification and transfer of analytical methods; register by logging on to http://www.globalcompliancepanel.com/control/globalseminars/~product_id=900858?linkedin-SEO .

This course has been pre-approved by RAPS as eligible for up to 12 credits towards a participant’s RAC recertification upon full completion.

Contents of the two-day seminar

Over the course of these two days, Huber will equip participants with the background needed for getting a proper understanding of the requirements that need to go into validation, verification and transfer of analytical methods. An even more significant learning he will offer is the one on strategies needed for this.

He will provide tools to implement most critical requirements. Also provided are templates and examples for developing inspection-ready documentation. Interactivity will be a major component of this seminar. Huber will sprinkle workshop exercises into and between the presentations. Around half of the total time will be dedicated to practical sessions with real life examples.

An additional bonus for participants is the assortment of tools the Director of this seminar will offer, such as SOPs, validation examples and checklists, all of which will be made readily available on a dedicated website, and which can be used to easily implement the learning gained in the course.

What Would Happen to Health Spending Under ACA?

The growth in health care spending is expected to have slowed in 2016 and to remain slow in 2017, due to slower enrollment in government-sponsored Medicaid and a reduction in spending on prescription drugs, according to a report released Wednesday by actuaries from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

The report, published in the journal Health Affairs, assumes that President Barack Obama’s health care law, the Affordable Care Act, is still in place. Every year, the Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services releases an analysis about how Americans are expected to spend money on health care in the years ahead. The agency will release the final outcomes on 2016 spending at the end of this year, once all the amounts have been tabulated.


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Michelle Loose, a University of Denver accelerated nursing student, checks the blood pressure for patient Elife Bzuneh, during a medical clinic night at the DAWN clinic on August 9, 2016, in Aurora, Colorado.

Priced Out of Coverage


The effects of the Affordable Care Act are expected to dwindle in coming years. The report finds that if the law were to continue as is then the share of the insured population would increase from 90.9 percent in 2015 to 91.5 by 2025, as more people become employed in jobs that provide them with coverage.

The slowing of health spending growth by 1.1 percent to 4.8 percent in 2016 is expected to be short-lived as the U.S. population ages, with baby boomers going onto Medicare and likely needing to use more care. Because of these factors, beginning in 2018 both Medicare and Medicaid are projected to grow faster than private insurance spending as income growth slows.

“Irrespective of any changes in law, it is expected that because of continued cost pressures associated with paying for health care, employers, insurers and other payers will continue to pursue strategies that seek to effectively manage the use and cost of health care goods and services,” Sean Keehan, the study’s first author, said in a statement.

During a press conference in Washington hosted by Health Affairs, Keehan said that “high cost-sharing is certainly one of the important factors” in driving down how much people with private plans use care, given that they have to consider how much they will shoulder costs themselves in the form of out-of-pocket spending and deductibles.

By 2025, actuaries forecast that health care’s share of the economy will reach 19.9 percent, an increase from 17.8 percent in 2025.

According to authors of the Health Affairs article, “medical price growth is projected to quicken in the coming decade compared to recent history, as both overall prices and medical-specific price inflation grow faster.”

In 2014 and 2015, health care spending had accelerated because the Affordable Care Act’s provisions went into effect: Coverage was expanded to more people and more people used health care. The federal government also chipped in more to help people pay for premiums and to pay for Medicaid for low-income Americans. Prescription drug costs also are expected to slow. In 2014 and 2015, spending surged as the drugs that were approved to treat hepatitis C, a liver disease that can require a transplant if it turns into a chronic infection, hit the market.


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Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price, center, accompanied by his wife Betty, and Vice President Mike Pence, signs an official document during a swearing in ceremony, Friday, Feb. 10, 2017, in the in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. (AP Photo/Andrew Harnik)

HHS Proposes Obamacare Rule


By 2016, these effects had slowed. Devin Stone, an economist in for CMS Office of the Actuary, said at the press conference that the projections assume that more drugs will lose their patents, slowing prescription drug costs as more generics become available.

Authors of the projections were forthcoming about the fact that the numbers are likely off target given that future of the Affordable Care Act is mired in uncertainty. Republicans and President Donald Trump have vowed to repeal the law, but lawmakers haven’t yet agreed on the timeline or ways to replace it. Decisions from lawmakers on both sides could alter factors around health spending but could also increase the number of uninsured, despite pledges or efforts not to.

Alan Weil, executive editor for Health Affairs, said the projections were still useful to help inform policy, particularly when it comes to designing ways to respond to the parts of the health care system that are driving price increases.

“This is a baseline and it’s still the law, so knowing where we are going is still important,” he said. “It’s also an important baseline to compare changes to the law. Whether we stick to the law or not, it’s important to know where we would have been.”

 

http://www.usnews.com/news/health-care-news/articles/2017-02-15/without-changes-to-obamacare-heres-what-happens-to-health-care-spending

The Design History File (DHF), the Technical File (TF) and the Design Dossier (DD)

The Design History File (DHF), the Technical File (TF) and the Design Dossier (DD) are core regulatory documents for a medical device. This is how one can understand the central difference between them: the Design History File (along with Design Control), is the most important among the regulatory documents that the FDA requires for medical devices, while the Technical File and Design Dossier are documents that serve the same purpose, however, within the EU’s regulatory body, the Medical Device Directive (MDD). These documents constitute core regulatory requirements within these regulatory bodies.

The DHF on the one hand, and the TF and the Design Dossier on the other, have a lot of similarities as well as dissimilarities with each other. At a basic level, the major similarity between them is their intended purpose, while what they should contain is the main difference between the two.

If US medical device companies seeking to go global have to compete at a global level, they must meet an assortment of product design documentation standards. The Design Control and the Design History File (DHF) are mandated by the FDA’s CGMPs in 21 CFR 820.30, while for the EU; the core requirement is its CE-marking documentation –the Technical File or Design Dossier, as described in the MDD.

A thorough understanding of Design History File, the Technical File and the Design Dossier is necessary

All the complexities and in-depth clarification relating to these subtle matters about medical device regulatory requirements will be unraveled at a two-day seminar that is being organized by GlobalCompliancePanel, a leading provider of professional trainings for the areas of regulatory compliance. John E Lincoln, who is Principal of J. E. Lincoln and Associates LLC, a consulting company and a senior Consultant in the Medical device and Regulatory Affairs areas, will be the Director at this seminar.

This seminar has been pre-approved by RAPS as eligible for up to 12 credits towards a participant’s RAC recertification upon full completion. To register for this seminar, please log on to http://www.globalcompliancepanel.com/control/globalseminars/~product_id=900746?linkedin-SEO .

Complete knowledge of Design History File, the Technical File and the Design Dossier

At this seminar, Lincoln will examine the existing and proposed requirements for the FDA’s DHF, which includes a discussion of its derivative documents, the DMR and DHR. He will explain what the European Union’s MDD TF/DD requirements are, along with an evaluation of the documents’ differing purposes and goals, their similarities, as well as the two different device classification schemes. All important aspects relating to these areas will be taken up.

These are some of the topics Lincoln will take up for discussion:

o  Areas requiring frequent re-evaluation or update

o  Similarities and differences

o  Future trends

o  Typical DHF Table of Contents

o  Technical File or Design Dossier Table of Contents

o  The importance and usefulness of the “Essential Requirements”

o  Structure of the “Declaration of Conformity”

o  Self-declaring or Notified-Body reviewed

o  Parallel approaches to development

o  The differing approaches to file audits by the U.S. FDA and the EU Notified Body.

Useful session for companies that need to handle Design History File, the Technical File and the Design Dossier

Being a seminar aimed at helping participants understand US and global standards for medical devices; it will offer valuable assistance to all regulated companies that need to implement, review and/or modify their Device History Files, Device Master Records, Device History Records, Technical Files or Design Dossiers, documents, and activities/plan(s).

During the course of these two days, Lincoln will cover the following areas:

o  The Design Control requirements of the CGMPs, 21 CFR 820.30

o  The Design History File – documenting Product Design Control and its nine elements

o  The Device Master Record and the Device History Record

o  The EU’s Medical Device Directive

o  The “Essential Requirements”; and their documentation

o  The remaining elements of a Technical File / Design Dossier

o  Trends

o  Two attendee projects.

Preparing premarket submissions that win regulatory approval

Preparing premarket submissions that win regulatory approval is a complex task, even for the most seasoned professional in the medical devices industry. This is because of the highly stringent nature of the regulatory approval pathways, namely the Premarket Approval (PMA) process and FDA regulatory 510(k) clearance.

What makes preparing premarket submissions that win regulatory approval challenging? It is the fact, acknowledged by the FDA itself, that the PMA is the most stringent type of device marketing application required by the FDA. The PMA should be secured from the FDA before the company markets the medical device. The FDA gives its approval of the PMA for a Class II medical device only after it determines that all the elements necessary for assuring that the application has enough scientific confirmation that it is safe and effective for the intended uses it is going to be put to. Preparing premarket submissions thus is an onerous task by any stretch of imagination.

Another element of preparing premarket submissions that win regulatory approval

Another aspect of preparing premarket submissions is the 510 (k). The 510 (k) is essentially a kind of premarket submission that is made to the FDA to show that the device that a manufacturer intends to market is at least as effective and safe as a legally marketed device of its equivalence, already in the market, that is not subject to PMA. The FDA calls this principle the substantial equivalency (SE) and the device that is used as the reference for equivalence, the predicate device. The requirements governing SE are contained in 21 CFR 807.92(a) (3).

On top of all these, regulatory professionals have the responsibility of creating preparing premarket submissions that should not only convincingly demonstrate the ways of stating and explaining regulatory arguments for their device to the U.S. FDA reviewer for getting the approval; they should also be presentable and well-organized, without being cluttered or confusing.

Professional trainings for preparing premarket submissions that win regulatory approval

Given all these, it goes without saying that a completely thorough understanding and knowledge of the relevant U.S. FDA laws, regulations and requirements is absolutely necessary for regulatory professionals. This in-depth understanding can be had only from thorough training, which is indispensable if the medical device company is to win a clearance or approval.

The ways by which to do this is the core learning a two-day seminar from GlobalCompliancePanel, a leading provider of professional trainings for the regulatory compliance areas, will impart. The Director of this seminar is Subhash Patel, a very senior regulatory professional and founder of New Jersey-based MD Reg Consulting LLC, which serves medical device industry clients in all aspects of global regulatory affairs specific to their needs.

To enroll for this highly valuable training session on how to successfully prepare 510(k)/Pre-IDE/IDE and PMA premarket submissions that secure clearances and approvals from the FDA, please register for this seminar by visiting http://www.globalcompliancepanel.com/control/globalseminars/~product_id=900776SEMINAR?wordpress-SEO .  This seminar has been pre-approved by RAPS as eligible for up to 12 credits towards a participant’s RAC recertification upon full completion.

The grasp needed for preparing premarket submission that win regulatory approval

At this seminar, Patel will demonstrate the grasp that regulatory professionals in the medical devices industry need for working with the FDA officials during the review and approval process of their submission. He will offer a complete understanding of the major aspects of FDA premarket submissions.

While knowledge of the regulatory process is one thing; medical device companies also need to know how to set and state regulatory arguments for their device in a most convincing manner to the FDA reviewer. This knowledge will be part of this course. In the process of explaining how to prepare premarket submissions that win regulatory approval; Patel will also offer tips and suggestions to participants on how to work effectively with the U.S. FDA officials during review and approval process of their submission.

During the course of these two days, Patel will cover the following core elements of how to prepare premarket submissions. He will explain the following:

o  History and background of U.S FDA Laws and Regulations

o  Classify Your Device

o  Choose the Correct Premarket Submission for your device

o  Compile the Appropriate Information for your Premarket Submission

o  Author and Prepare your Premarket Submission

o  Submit your Premarket Submission to the FDA

o  Interact with FDA Staff during Review and Approval

o  Complete the Establishment Registration and Device Listing

http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidance/HowtoMarketYourDevice/PremarketSubmissions/PremarketApprovalPMA/default.htm

http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidance/HowtoMarketYourDevice/PremarketSubmissions/PremarketNotification510k/default.htm