The Investigational New Drug Applications mechanism in the USA

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The IND is a process which gives the sponsor the opportunity to start marketing across the States of the US without having to complete the formal process. it also gives the patient the assurance that the drug that is being administered may not have gone through the full regulatory process as yet, but is as effective as one that is already in the market. The FDA has three mechanisms in place for submission of an IND.

Present Federal law requires a manufacturer who wants to market a drug in the US to subject the drug to an approved marketing application before it gets transported and/or distributed for interstate commerce, i.e., within the different States in the US.

Since it is very likely that the sponsor of a clinical trial may want to ship the investigational drug to clinical investigators across several states, it is but natural that the sponsor would look for exemption from this legal requirement. The Investigational New Drug (IND) Applications in the USA is the mechanism through which this exemption issues from the FDA to the sponsor.

investigationalNewDrugApplicationsInTheUsaWe can understand the Investigational New Drug Application this way: it is a request made by the sponsor of a clinical study with the FDA asking for its authorization to administer a biological product or an investigational drug to humans before the product goes through interstate shipment. The IND application should also be made before administering a drug that is not the same as an approved New Drug Application or Biologics/Product License Application.

The rationale behind filing Investigational New Drug Application

 

Ensuring a drug’s safety for use in humans is the basis for the entire idea of filing an Investigational New Drug Application. This is the prelude to the steps for its commercialization. By paving the way for further actions such as data collection; the Investigational New Drug Application is often the predecessor step for reinforcing the drug’s safety. An Investigational New Drug Application can be understood or taken as some kind of assurance or guarantee that when the drug that is at this stage of studies is administered on humans; it is not harmful and does not carry risks.

Ensuring a drug’s safety for use in humans is the basis for the entire idea of filing an Investigational New Drug Application. This is the prelude to the steps for its commercialization. By paving the way for further actions such as data collection; the Investigational New Drug Application is often the predecessor step for reinforcing the drug’s safety. An Investigational New Drug Application can be understood or taken as some kind of assurance or guarantee that when the drug that is at this stage of studies is administered on humans; it is not harmful and does not carry risks.

The FDA’s roleinvestigationalNewDrugApplicationsInTheUsaThe FDA’s comes into the picture when the sponsor who files an Investigational New Drug Application wants to test the effect on humans of molecules that it has screened and identified. At this stage, the status of the molecule changes into a new drug that is subject to the requirements set out by the regulatory system.

Kinds of INDsThere are three types of Investigational New Drug Applications:

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Elements of an Investigational New Drug Application
investigationalNewDrugApplicationsInTheUsaThe FDA requires an Investigational New Drug Application to contain the following:

  • Studies carried out for testing animal pharmacology and toxicology
  • Information about the manufacturing aspects of the drug
  • Information about the clinical protocols and investigator of the Investigational New Drug Application

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Export, Import and Trade Compliance Principle – an understanding

Export, import and trade compliance principle is a very important guiding standard for governing trade policies and ensuring compliance with the set national, regional and global trade norms. It helps to define an organization’s adherence to the export, import and trade compliance principle laid out by the government and also offers an understanding of the government’s outlook and stance in these matters.

There are two aspects of the export, import and trade compliance principle:

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General export, import and trade compliance principles

 

As can be understood from the description of the concept of export, import and trade compliance principle; export, import and trade compliance principles laid out by the government and requiring compliance with their guidelines are fixed. Organizations cannot manipulate or tamper them. Doing so, naturally, invites penalties.

However, the export, import and trade compliance principles set out by individual companies are conditioned by their own ethics and culture. These are a reflection of how organizations carry out their export, import and trade compliance principle, something that they themselves have laid out.

export-import-and-trade-compliance-principleAdapting the right export, import and trade compliance principle and implementing it is a reflection of how well the organization understands the business and the market and how well it is able to maintain its integrity among its circles. Needless to say, an organization that says one thing and does another is seen in a negative light by its peers.

 

Organizations specialize in helping to implement export, import and trade compliance principle

 

Just as there are many organizations which are in the business of ensuring many complex fields such as governance, risk and compliance (GRC) and technology compliance; several organizations specialize in helping organizations implement both the export, import and trade compliance principle as laid out by the government, and their own export, import and trade compliance principles.

export-import-and-trade-compliance-principleWhether an organization gets its export, import and trade compliance principle implemented through an outside, third party or does it on its own; there is no escaping the fact that export, import and trade compliance principle is something that is mandatory to state and implement accordingly.

Overlaps and alignments of organizational, governmental and trade bloc requirements

export-import-and-trade-compliance-principleEven when organizations draw up their own export, import and trade compliance principle; they are bound to include the latest and relevant regulations, policies and procedures as laid out by the government. Many internal export, import and trade compliance principles and external (those prescribed and required by the government) overlap on many occasions with those of trade blocs such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), European Union Preferential Trade Agreement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Mercosur, etc. Export, import and trade compliance principles from these different sources should align with each other.

Reasons for export, import and trade compliance principle implementation

 

The export, import and trade compliance principles laid out by respective governments are in place because of many important reasons.

 

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Murj wants to give data collection from implantable medical devices an upgrade

Murj, a new company backed by $4.5 million in new venture financing, is looking to make data collection from implantable heart monitoring and management devices easier and more manageable.

The company was founded by a former Medtronic sales rep who’d previously worked as a product manager on Apple’s iPads. After a few years in sales, Murj founder Todd Butka began thinking about ways to make the data collected by cardiac technologies more easily available to physicians and diagnosticians.

Now the company is coming to market with backing from True Ventures and Social Capital.

Unlike existing technologies that deliver data in static .pdf documents, Murj collects the data and stores it in its own off-premise data warehouses. Using dashboards and other visualization tools doctors can get a better read on what’s going on with their patients’ heart health, Butka claims.

“The information comes from the devices to the implantable devices’ servers… We ping the servers,” Butka explained.

The Murj launch wraps up three years of work developing the technology, which was founded in 2014 and raised its first money in 2015.

The company, based in Santa Cruz, brought on Chris Irving as its lead designer and Patrick Beaulieu, an 18 year veteran of the medical device business, as its chief technical officer.

I think of the company as sort of an Apple Healthkit for implantable devices. If it can expand its scope beyond pacemakers and heart monitors to a broader range of implantables, it could be a pretty big business.

As the population ages, and technologies improve, demand for more persistent diagnostic tools will grow.

In a sense this is part of a number of companies that are trying to provide better tools to manage the data coming off of the sensors that we’ve got all around us.

 

Read More: http://snip.ly/kvqol#https://techcrunch.com/2017/04/18/murj-wants-to-give-data-collection-from-wearable-devices-an-upgrade/

GMP and Regulatory Expectations for Early IND Products

 GMP and Regulatory Expectations for Early IND ProductsWhat the FDA’s recent guidance documents covering GMP requirements for Phase I products have done is to significantly reduce a few of the complexities that early phase products are typically against. These guidance documents are in addition to those that cover the CMC sections for IND submissions at Phase I.

These new guidelines appear to remove the need to follow GMPs for Phase I products; yet, this need persists in the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. So, what can be said is that the need for GMP requirements for Phase I products has only been altered, not done away with. The nature of the investigational drug and the extent of the study that is planned will now determine the nature and extent of GMP-related activities.

A training session that will give complete understanding of these aspects

Steven S. Kuwahara, Founder and Principal, GXP BioTechnology LLC, will offer complete clarity on all these points of GMP and regulatory expectations for early IND products at a two-day seminar that is being organized by GlobalCompliancePanel, a leading provider of professional trainings for the areas of regulatory compliance. Please visit GMP and Regulatory Expectations for Early IND Products to enroll for this seminar.

This seminar has been pre-approved by RAPS as eligible for up to 12 credits towards a participant’s RAC recertification upon full completion.

Advice on the GMP guidance document

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At this seminar, Dr. Kuwahara will review the GMP guidance document and discuss how it may be integrated with the recommendations of the guidance documents on CMC requirements. It will be a one-source course at which the regulations and guidelines that apply to early phase products will be presented. In a few cases, these may not be regulations, but needs that, if met, will increase the efficiency of activities as a product proceeds through the development process. Dr. Kuwahara will present these items in the order of product development starting from the point of R & D activities and culminating in the completion of Phase 2 clinical trials.

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Any pharmaceutical personnel who must deal with products both in early and later phases of development, will find this presentation highly valuable, as it will make them aware of the regulatory requirements that will affect operations dealing with these products. The modifications to the GMPs for early phase products have altered the GMPs in such a way as to reduce requirements to allow more efficient work. At the same time, some of the things that may appear to have changed, have not, and personnel in the pharmaceutical sector should be aware of this. This is the learning that Steven will emphasize at this seminar. Directors, Managers and Supervisors in Regulatory Affairs, Quality Assurance and Quality Control will get a grasp of these aspects.

Over these two days, Dr. Kuwahara will cover the following areas:

  • Very Early Stages
  • GLP requirements
  • Early Pre-IND Studies
  • Meetings and Preparing for the IND
  • GMPs for Phase 1 IND products
  • Requirements for Phase 2 INDs
  • Preparing for IND Meetings.

 

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Video of father comforting newborn son receiving his first vaccines goes viral

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On October 26, first-time father Antwon Lee took his two-month-old son Debias King to get his first vaccinations. Lee, 29, said he was very nervous for the appointment, telling People Magazine that he “felt kind of scared a little bit,” as he knew the child was “going to go through some pain.” Before the visit, he also continually reassured his son that he could cry if he needed to.

TEARS AS CONJOINED TWINS DIE DAY AFTER BIRTH

When it came time for the vaccinations, Lee held his son in his arms and told the little boy to “stay strong,” while Shamekia Harris, Lee’s girlfriend, recorded the visit on her phone. Little Debias did cry as the nurse gave him his shots, but stopped soon afterward when Lee consoled him.

The video has since gone viral, with about 13 million views, 51 thousand likes, and 186 thousand shares as of Wednesday.

Sadly, Lee’s father, Anthony Lee, 57, died that same day due to complications from drinking. Lee explained to People that he was emotional and very close to his father, and that he later spoke to his son Debias about his hopes for the future.

“I talked to him like a grown up … I told him, before I leave, want to see him succeed,” Lee said.

Lee wishes that the video will remind others of the importance of fatherhood, “I want them to take care of their kids, because when you sign up for something, you have to stick with it,” he told People.

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Lee, however, isn’t the only person to go viral for his vaccination video: In 2014, pediatrician Michael Darden gained attention for his unique approach to giving shots, and the video still doesn’t disappoint:

Read More: http://snip.ly/9obne#http://www.foxnews.com/health/2017/11/01/video-father-comforting-newborn-son-receiving-his-first-vaccines-goes-viral.html

IT’S A NO BRAINER! Action needed to stop children being exposed to chemicals that harm their brain development!

A report published today by CHEM Trust highlights how chemicals in food and consumer products used in homes, schools and offices could harm brain development in children.

The impacts – which may include ADHD and lower IQ – are avoidable and can prevent children reaching their full potential says CHEM Trust, in No Brainer: The impact of chemicals on children’s brain development: a cause for concern and a need for action.

Researchers have shown that many thousands of people have been exposed to now largely-banned chemicals such as lead and PCBs at high enough levels to have harmed their brain function. Now there is growing concern about the impacts of exposures to many of the ‘new’ chemicals in our 21st century lifestyles.

Chemicals of concern include brominated flame retardants (BFRs), a group of chemicals added to furniture, electronics and building materials, per- and poly- fluorocarbons (PFCs), used for non-stick coatings or breathable coatings in everyday products including packaging and clothes. Some chemicals in these groups are being phased out, but similar chemicals remain in everyday use.

The study also points out the unpleasant reality that children are constantly exposed to a cocktail of chemicals, which can act together, something which is still largely ignored by chemical safety laws.

CHEM Trust proposes a range of policies that could help address this challenge, for example faster regulatory action on groups of similar chemicals, and development of new methods for identifying chemicals of concern. They also include advice for consumers on how to reduce their exposure.

Dr Michael Warhurst, Executive Director of CHEM Trust, said:

“The brain development of future generations is at stake. We need EU regulators to phase out groups of chemicals of concern, rather than slowly restricting one chemical at a time. We cannot continue to gamble with our children’s health.”

The report has been peer reviewed by two eminent scientists in the field, Professor Philippe Grandjean and Professor Barbara Demeneix.

Prof Barbara Demeneix (Laboratory of Evolution of Endocrine Regulations, CNRS, Paris) said:

Chemical exposure is now at unprecedented levels, is multiple, ubiquitous, and present from conception onwards

Prof. Philippe Grandjean (Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Southern Denmark), added:

The current generation has the responsibility to safeguard the brains of the future
“I would insist that the Precautionary Principle must be applied in order to protect the next generation’s brains.”

 

Read More: http://snip.ly/maoou#http://www.chemtrust.org/brain/

 

The science of Sad: understanding the causes of ‘winter depression’

The science of Sad

For many of us in the UK, the annual ritual of putting the clocks back for daylight saving time can be accompanied by a distinct feeling of winter blues as autumn well and truly beds in. This might be felt as a lack of energy, reduced enjoyment in activities and a need for more sleep than normal. But for around 6% of the UK population and between 2-8% of people in other higher latitude countries such as Canada, Denmark and Sweden, these symptoms are so severe that these people are unable to work or function normally. They suffer from a particular form of major depression, triggered by changes in the seasons, called seasonal affective disorder or Sad.

In addition to depressive episodes, Sad is characterised by various symptoms including chronic oversleeping and extreme carbohydrate cravings that lead to weight gain. As this is the opposite to major depressive disorder where patients suffer from disrupted sleep and loss of appetite, Sad has sometimes been mistakenly thought of as a “lighter” version of depression, but in reality it is simply a different version of the same illness. “People who truly have Sad are just as ill as people with major depressive disorder,” says Brenda McMahon, a psychiatry researcher at the University of Copenhagen. “They will have non-seasonal depressive episodes, but the seasonal trigger is the most common. However it’s important to remember that this condition is a spectrum and there are a lot more people who have what we call sub-syndromal Sad.”

Around 10-15% of the population has sub-syndromal Sad. These individuals struggle through autumn and winter and suffer from many of the same symptoms but they do not have clinical depression. And in the northern hemisphere, as many as one in three of us may suffer from “winter blues” where we feel flat or disinterested in things and regularly fatigued.

Putting the clocks back for daylight saving time can be accompanied by a distinct feeling of winter blues.

One theory for why this condition exists is related to evolution. Around 80% of Sad sufferers are women, particularly those in early adulthood. In older women, the prevalence of Sad goes down and some researchers believe that this pattern is linked to the behavioural cycles of our ancient ancestors. “Because it affects such a large proportion of the population in a mild to moderate form, a lot of people in the field do feel that Sad is a remnant from our past, relating to energy conservation,” says Robert Levitan, a professor at the University of Toronto. “Ten thousand years ago, during the ice age, this biological tendency to slow down during the wintertime was useful, especially for women of reproductive age because pregnancy is very energy-intensive. But now we have a 24-hour society, we’re expected to be active all the time and it’s a nuisance. However, as to why a small proportion of people experience it so severely that it’s completely disabling, we don’t know.”

There are a variety of biological systems thought to be involved, including some of the major neurotransmitter systems in the brain that are associated with motivation, energy and the organisation of our 24-hour circadian rhythms. “We know that dopamine and norepinephrine play critical roles in terms of how we wake up in the morning and how we energise the brain,” Levitan says. One particular hormone, melatonin, which controls our sleep and wake cycles, is thought to be “phase delayed” in people with severe Sad, meaning it is secreted at the wrong times of the day.

Another system of particular interest relates to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates anxiety, happiness and mood. Increasing evidence from various imaging and rodent studies suggests that the serotonin system may be directly modulated by light. Natural sunlight comes in a variety of wavelengths, and it is particularly rich in light at the blue end of the spectrum. When cells in the retina, at the back of our eye, are hit by this blue light, they transmit a signal to a little hub in the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus that integrates different sensory inputs, controls our circadian rhythms, and is connected to another hub called the raphe nuclei in the brain stem, which is the origin of all serotonin neurons throughout the brain. When there is less light in the wintertime, this network is not activated enough. In especially susceptible individuals, levels of serotonin in the brain are reduced to such an extent that it increases the likelihood of a depressive episode.

The most popular treatments for Sad is bright-light therapy.

Read More: http://snip.ly/25gi4#https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/oct/30/sad-winter-depression-seasonal-affective-disorder

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