Design of Experiments (DoE) for Process Development and Validation

Design of Experiments (DoE) is a very important process development and validation component in several kinds of industries. DoE for process development and validation involves carrying out a number of tests recurrently and steadily over a period of time. Its responses are then observed.

DoE is important for process development and validation as it offers an understanding of the predictability and reproducibility of an experiment. Fundamentally, Design of Experiments for process development and validation seeks to rule out fluke or chance in the methods needed for bringing about control for a product.

DoE in medical devices

In the area of medical devices, guidelines for Design of Experiments for process development and validation are set out in the Global Harmonization Task Force (GHTF) Process Validation Guidance for Medical Device Manufacturers. This document offers guidance in the area of Design of Experiments for process development and validation by suggesting the exact areas in which design of experiments should be applied during Process Validation.

The GHTF guidance also suggests the use of both screening and response surface designs during Operational Qualification. It further requires Design of Experiments for process development and validation to be used during various phases of design controls. These include:

o  Design and development planning

o  Design verification

o  Design validation

o  Design transfer

o  Design changes.

Get a full understanding of Design of Experiments for process development and validation

The ways of approaching Design of Experiments for process development and validation will be topic of a two-day seminar that is being organized by GlobalCompliancePanel, a highly respected provider of professional trainings for the areas of regulatory compliance.

Jim Wisnowski, who is the cofounder of Adsurgo LLC and co-author of the book Design and Analysis of Experiments by Douglas Montgomery: A Supplement for using JMP, will be the Director at this seminar. In order to gain a full understanding of the principles and application of Design of Experiments for process development and validation; please register for this seminar by visiting http://www.globalcompliancepanel.com/control/globalseminars/~product_id=900794?linkedin-SEO .

This seminar has been pre-approved by RAPS as eligible for up to 12 credits towards a participant’s RAC recertification upon full completion.

All about Design of Experiments for process development and validation

This seminar will offer total and all-round understanding of all the aspects of Design of Experiments for process development and validation.

Process development studies need to be completed before a process control plan is developed as part of an overall risk management strategy. These process development studies help gain knowledge and understanding about the impact of variation in process parameters on the variation in the product quality characteristics of the product.

An explanation of the methods used

The methodology of Design of Experiments for process development and validation offers a means for identifying process parameters, which impact product quality (critical process parameters) and determine the functional relationship that links the process parameters to those critical quality attributes.

Design of Experiments for process development and validation uses screening designs such as 2k factorial and D-optimal designs to determine critical process parameters. Design of Experiments for process development and validation use response surface designs, such as Central Composite Designs (CCDs) and I-optimal designs for fashioning the functional relationship between those critical process parameters and the critical quality attributes.

A primer on statistical analysis

This seminar on Design of Experiments for process development and validation will present a primer on statistical analysis, during which it will focus on the methods required for analysis of designed experiments. Jim will then move on to the steps to a proper DoE, during the process of which he will demonstrate the nature and uses of important risk management tools such as Ishikawa and FMEA, which can be used pre and post DOE studies.

The Director will also teach how to generate and analyze multiple screening and response surface designs, and why and how each are used. After teaching participants how to present the results, Jim will explain how to update the risk management tools using the results of the studies.

This session on Design of Experiments for process development and validation will cover the following areas:

o  Identify critical quality attributes (CQAs) that will be used as responses in your designs

o  Utilize risk management tools to identify and prioritize potential critical process parameters

o  Identify critical process parameters and develop a functional relationship between those process parameters and your critical-to-quality attributes (CQAs) using both screening and response surface designs

o  Be able to design and analyze screening designs including a factorial, fractional factorial, and D-optimal design

o  Understand the need for adding center points to a design

o  Be able to design and analyze response surface designs including central composite designs (CCDs), Box-Behnken designs, and I-optimal designs

o  Present results of DOE studies

o  Use systematic understanding from DOE studies to update the control plan that is part of the overall risk management plan.

Complaint Handling, Medical Device Reporting and Recalls

Complaint Handling, Medical Device Reporting and Recalls are important aspects of a medical device.

Complaint handling is a crucial element of any Quality System. If a complaint comes out from a user about a product after it has passed through FDA scrutiny, it is an indication that something needs to be looked at and that the complaint has to be addressed.

Putting in place an effective complaint handling system is an imperative for the medical device manufacturer and a requirement from the FDA. Complaints are an important indicator of the kind of products manufacturers release into the market. They are a very important standpoint from which devices are evaluated, investigated and analyzed, so that corrective action can be taken.

The complaint evaluation should serve as an indicator

A complaint handling system has to be put in place to help the manufacturer comprehend a gamut of issues concerning complaints. The validity of the complaint, the root cause of the complaint, and preventive action taken are important ones among these.

Look for the trend

Ignoring or glossing over complaints is something no medical device manufacturer that is serious about its business and is professional can afford to do. In fact, medical device manufacturers should look to complaints as being an important pointer of problems and issues with the design, use and/or manufacture of a product. It is possible that just one complaint that is fully investigated and properly handled could lead to corrective action from the manufacturer.

So, the trend is an important aspect of a medical device complaint handling system. The trend helps the manufacturer zero in on the specific cause for complaints. This, however, is not easy as it appears, because the medical device manufacturer may need to analyze a wide variety of complaints. It is only this comprehensive exercise that may sometimes lead to swooping in on a defect.

This exercise of spotting the trend is crucial for getting a hold of the precise locus of the problem in the Quality System. The trend could be anywhere ranging from the product to the labeling or to the packaging or its distribution.

Imparting understanding of Complaint Handling, Medical Device Reporting and Recalls

The important aspect of trend spotting in medical device recall and its associated aspects will be covered at an important learning session on this topic that is being organized by GlobalCompliancePanel, a leading provider of professional trainings for the areas of regulatory compliance.

At this two-day seminar, David R. Dills, Global Regulatory Affairs & Compliance Consultant who provides regulatory affairs and compliance consultative services for early-stage and established Class I/II/III device, IVD, biopharmaceutical, cosmetics and nutraceutical manufacturers, will be the Director. Full knowledge of all the aspects of medical device complaint handling can be gained by registering for this seminar. Please visit http://www.globalcompliancepanel.com/control/globalseminars/~product_id=900758?wordpress_SEO for this.

The MDR and the Recall

David will also take up other important aspects of the medical device Quality System: The MDA and medical device recalls. The Medical Device Reporting (MDR) is the FDA’s mechanism that enables it to receive adverse events about medical device from manufacturers, user facilities and importers. The MDR system is aimed at helping the agency detect and correct adverse events quickly.

User facilities such as nursing homes and hospitals are required to report suspected medical device related serious injuries to the manufacturer and suspected medical device related deaths to both the FDA and the manufacturers. In cases where there is no information about the manufacturer, these injuries have to be reported to the FDA itself.

The FDA has an elaborate reporting system for all categories of medical devices, such as manufacturers, user facilities, distributors and manufacturers. David will offer learning on all these aspects of complaint handling.

The Medical Device Recall    

The Medical Device Recall is the method by which a medical device is taken out from the market and/or corrected whenever the FDA determines that the device, if it is left to continue in the market, has the potential to cause anything from serious and adverse health consequences to death. One can understand Medical Device Recall as an action taken with the intention of addressing a problem with a medical device that has violated applicable FDA law.

These are the situations in which Medical Device Recalls happen:

1) Because of a defect in a medical device;

2) The device’s potential to pose a risk to health, or

3) When it has a defect and is a risk to health.

David will offer clarity on all these aspects of Medical Device Recalls.

Pharmacovigilance signaling

Pharmacovigilance signaling is an important aspect of pharmacovigilance. In simple terms, it is the detection of a new safety finding within a set of safety data which requires further investigation. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines pharmacovigilance signaling thus: ““reported information on a possible causal association between an adverse event and a drug, the relationship being unclear or incompletely documented previously”.

Why is pharmacovigilance signaling important?

For a drug to enter the market, it should have gone through a series of clinical trials and tests that establish its intended use and effect. These are very stringent and should take all aspects of the drug development into consideration. They are essentially aimed at making the drug and its manufacturing process documentable, verifiable, reproducible and predictable. These trials involve the collection of a huge amount of data pertaining to important aspects of the drug. Adverse events are one of them. Pharmacovigilance signaling establishes the link between an adverse event and the data, and hence is of pivotal importance to the clinical trial.

Categories of pharmacovigilance signaling

Pharmacologists usually classify these findings into three categories:

a)     Confirmed signals: in this scenario, data indicate that there is a causal relationship between the drug and the adverse effect (AE);

b)     Refuted (or false) pharmacovigilance signaling: this is a type of signaling in which the investigation shows no causal relationship between the drug and the AE;

c)      Unconfirmed signals: this is a type of finding in which the pharmacologists decide that there is need for further investigation. This investigation is done using more data. A prime example of this is the data that is got from carrying out a post-marketing trial to study the relationship between the drug and the AE.

Data mining

Having said this; pharmacovigilance signaling goes beyond just data used at the clinical trials. Since at least the 1990’s, statistical data mining emerged as a method of pharmacovigilance signaling. These are some of the kind of databases that are used for pharmacovigilance signaling:

  • Spontaneous reporting system (SRS) databases
  • Prescription event monitoring databases
  • Electronic medical records (EMR) databases
  • Large linked administrative databases, or electronic health records (EHR) databases

The main aim of mining databases for pharmacovigilance signaling is that they help researchers have a broader set of data for reference, leading to more accuracy of their tests.

References:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacovigilance#Signal_Detection

http://isif.org/fusion/proceedings/Fusion_2011/data/papers/200.pdf

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Pharmaceutical production batch record review

We can understand pharmaceutical production batch record review as meaning the controls and processes that pharmaceutical organizations have to build into the batch records of pharmaceutical products they manufacture. This is a means to ensuring that products meet compliance standards and are easy to detect whenever a problem arises from a sample in the batch or in the entire batch.

What does the 21 CFR 211.100 (a) say?

21 CFR 211.100 (a) is clear in its expectations. This and related subsections lay out the process by which pharmaceutical production batch record review has to be done. It states that all requirements have to written down in a prescribed format. The aim is to ensure that the core qualities of the drug relating to its molecule, such as the strength, quality, purity and identity are adhered to in every batch.

WHO requirements

The World Health Organization (WHO) lists the requirements for pharmaceutical production batch record review. These are the main points that go into it:

Pharmaceutical production batch record review consists of reviewing production and quality control records being made part of the approval process of batch release. Whenever there is the slightest deviation or failure on the part of any batch to meet its specifications; this should be properly and completely investigated. To ensure the quality of pharmaceutical production batch record review; the WHO states that the investigation can extend to other batches of the same product if necessary. On any observation and action taken, there should be a written record created of the investigation. This record should include the conclusion and details of the follow-up action that was taken.

The WHO also states that retention samples from each batch of finished product should be kept for at least one year after the expiry date. These have to be kept in the prescribed methods and conditions. Pharmaceutical production batch record review requirements state that where starting materials are concerned, the retention period is two years from the date of expiry.

References:

http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js5517e/20.4.17.3.html#Js5517e.20.4.17.3

http://pharmaceuticalvalidation.blogspot.com/2010/03/batch-manufacturing-record-review.html

Contact Detail
GlobalCompliancePanel
webinars@globalcompliancepanel.com
http://www.globalcompliancepanel.com
Phone:800-447-9407
Fax:302-288-6884
43337 Livermore Common | Fremont| CA | USA | 94539