How Americans get their health insurance

With Obamacare firmly in the crosshairs of Republican lawmakers, the debate around U.S. healthcare is at a fever pitch.

While there is no shortage of opinions on the best route forward, the timeliness of the debate also gives us an interesting chance to dive into some of the numbers around healthcare – namely how people even get coverage in the first place.

How Americans get healthcare

The following infographic shows a breakdown of how Americans get healthcare coverage, based on information from Census Bureau’s surveys.

Put together by Axios, it shows the proportion of Americans getting coverage from employers, Medicaid, Medicare, non-group policies, and other public sources. The graphic also includes the 9% of the population that is uninsured, as well.

visual 1Axios via Visual Capitalist

The following definitions for each category above come from the Kaiser Family Foundation, a non-profit that uses the Census Bureau’s data to put together comprehensive estimates on healthcare in the country:

Employer-Based: Includes those covered by employer-sponsored coverage either through their own job or as a dependent in the same household.

Medicaid: Includes those covered by Medicaid, the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and those who have both Medicaid and another type of coverage, such as dual eligibles who are also covered by Medicare.

Medicare: Includes those covered by Medicare, Medicare Advantage, and those who have Medicare and another type of non-Medicaid coverage where Medicare is the primary payer. Excludes those with Medicare Part A coverage only and those covered by Medicare and Medicaid (dual eligibles).

Other Public: Includes those covered under the military or Veterans Administration.

Non-Group: Includes individuals and families that purchased or are covered as a dependent by non-group insurance.

Uninsured: Includes those without health insurance and those who have coverage under the Indian Health Service only.

Healthcare mix by state

Here’s another look at how Americans get healthcare coverage on a state-by-state basis.

This time the graphic comes from Overflow Data and it simply shows the percent of buyers in each state that receive health coverage from public sources:

Oddly, the state that gets the highest proportion of public health coverage (New Mexico, 46.6%) is kitty-corner to the state with the lowest proportion of public health coverage (Utah, 21.3%).

Why the debate is paramount

If you ask some people what is going on with U.S. healthcare, they will tell you that things are going “sideways” – that costs are going up, but care is not improving anywhere near the same pace.

Here’s a graphic we published last year from Max Roser that puts this sentiment in perspective:

us healthcare systemVisual Capitalist via Our World in Data

It’s fair to say that care has been going sideways in the U.S. for some time, and the stakes couldn’t be higher.

So, what needs to be done to fix the problem?

Read the original article on Visual Capitalist. Get rich, visual content on business and investing for free at the Visual Capitalist website, or follow Visual Capitalist on TwitterFacebook, or LinkedIn for the latest. Copyright 2017. Follow Visual Capitalist on Twitter.

Quality by Design using Design of Experiments 2017

The Q8, which is the ICH guidance document on pharmaceutical development, requires a drug product to meet its intended product performance as well as the needs of patients. A drug product is encouraged to adapt a systematic approach for pharmaceutical development in accordance with the steps defined by Quality by Design (QbD) principles, even though the strategy may vary from company to company or from product to product.

The ICH has offered further guidance and policies for explaining the ways by which the QbD approach should be integrated into the pharmaceutical Quality System. Some of these are:

o  Process design

o  Qualification

o  Continued process verification

o  Risk management

o  Validation.

Laxity in implementation is no longer an option

Despite the issuance of guidance on implementation of these requirements; many companies have not yet implemented QbD into their Quality Systems. This will change soon, though. Regulatory agencies have been taking a serious view of non-implementation of these requirements.

The ways in which reviewers will begin to enforce the requirements from these guidance documents have been spelt out in the manual the Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) reviewers in the Office of Pharmaceutical Science (OPS) released on policies and procedures (MAPP).

The zeal with which the regulatory agencies will enforce compliance with the requirements of the QbD requirements has been emphasized also by the Director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) at the FDA, who detailed the concept and reiterated the importance of using a QbD approach to pharmaceutical development in a paper he co-authored in The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists in May 2014.

Understand the ways of implementing QbD

In the light of the fact that a drug product can no longer afford to relax in its adherence to steps defined by Quality by Design (QbD) principles to adapting a systematic approach for pharmaceutical development; a meaningful and educative two-day seminar from GlobalCompliancePanel, a leading provider of professional trainings for the areas of regulatory compliance, will show the ways of doing this.

At this seminar, Heath Rushing, who is the cofounder of Adsurgo LLC and co-author of the book Design and Analysis of Experiments by Douglas Montgomery: A Supplement for using JMP, will be the Director. To gain complete insight into how to implement QbD, please register for this seminar by visiting Quality by Design using Design of Experiments. This seminar has been pre-approved by RAPS as eligible for up to 12 credits towards a participant’s RAC recertification upon full completion.

Complete learning on QbD using DoE

The core purpose of this session is to demonstrate how to integrate those QbD principles into a pharmaceutical Quality System. Towards this end, Heath will focus on how to establish a systematic approach to pharmaceutical development that is defined by Quality-by-Design (QbD) principles using Design of Experiments (DoE).

He will also take up the application of statistics for setting specifications, assessing measurement systems (assays), developing a control plan as part of a risk management strategy, and ensuring process control/capability for detailed description. All concepts are taught within the product Quality System framework defined by requirements in regulatory guidance documents.

A systematic understanding of the process

A QbD approach for pharmaceutical development studies should include a systematic understanding of the process. It should then use this understanding to establish a control strategy as part of a comprehensive quality risk management program. This systematic understanding should include both identification of significant process parameters and determination of a functional relationship (mathematical model) linking these significant process parameters to the critical Quality Attributes (CQAs). Heath will discuss these in depth.

Despite the thrust of this seminar on the use of DoE for QbD; it will integrate multiple aspects of QbD. An understanding of the relevant applied statistics will be offered, which will help participants understand how statistics can be used to help in two foundational requirements of QbD: A) Setting specifications, and B) Analyzing measurement systems.

Important tools for facilitating understanding

This seminar will also offer tools to participants, which will help them to derive value out of their designed experiments. Generating and analyzing both screening and response surface designs for QbD studies, the ways of using this information: best practices on presentation, setting control plans, constructing control charts, and evaluating process capability are among the other constituents of this course. This course uses the point-and-click interface of JMP software for analyses.

Heath will cover the following areas at this seminar:

o  Implement QbD principles from discovery through product discontinuation

o  Apply statistics to set specifications and validate measurement systems (assays)

o  Utilize risk management tools to identify and prioritize potential Critical Process Parameters

o  Identify Critical Process Parameters and develop a functional relationship between those process parameters and your Critical-to-Quality Attributes (CQAs)

o  Establish your design space

o  Develop a control plan as part of a risk management strategy

o  Ensure your process is in (statistical) control and capable.

Key issues in HR auditing

Key issues in HR auditing

The importance of HR auditing can be gauged from the fact that it is about employees, an organization’s most valuable resource. It is through HR audits that an organization evaluates its strengths and weaknesses of its most important resource. HR audits have come a long way from the earlier times, when they were considered a set of checklists to be ticked. Today, HR audits in organizations consist of a whole gamut of sustainable and continuous audit activities that relate to critical areas such as governance, compliance and management in the organization.

Important benefits of HR auditing

HR auditing helps organizations:

o  Zero in on not only existing problems relating to HR, but also potential ones

o  Assess the efficacy of HR management practices

o  Understand the deficiencies of the HR internal control processes

o  Evaluate human capital and risks, both from the strategic and compliance-related perspectives

Rightly done HR audits enhance the value of an organization’s human capital and its competitiveness and bring down its susceptibility to employment practices liabilities by advising the management on what corrective steps it needs to take to resolve HR internal control processes.

Most importantly, HR audits should take human capital related risks and opportunities from the standpoint of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM), which leads to higher interaction between HR and management.

Proper ways of carrying out HR auditing

Although most organizations understand the importance of HR auditing and its uses; it is important for them to get the exact ways of implementing it. Getting their HR auditing right is the stepping stone to many important useful and corrective steps.

Risk management is the single most important ingredient that has to go into HR auditing. The proper ways of carrying out HR auditing will be imparted at a two-day seminar from GlobalCompliancePanel, a leading provider of professional trainings for the areas of regulatory compliance.

The Director of this seminar is Ronald Adler, a president-CEO of Laurdan Associates, Inc., a veteran owned, human resource management consulting firm that specializes in HR audits, employment practices liability risk management, HR metrics and benchmarking, strategic HR-business issues and unemployment insurance. Ronald brings vast and deep experience in all the areas of HR including HR auditing.

Professionals who wish to benefit from this learning can register for this seminar by logging on to Key issues in HR auditing .

The Director of this seminar will help organizations direct and focus their attention on their human resource management practices, policies, procedures, processes, and outcomes.

Asking the right questions

The foundation to sound HR auditing is to ask the right questions. Sharp, thoughtful, perceptive and insightful, they should prod management into getting into the depths of HR auditing. The ways by which to ingrain the habit of asking the right, meaningful questions will be the major learning this seminar will impart. Ronald will show the ways by which HR auditing needs to learn to throw up a structured and systematic series of questions about core areas such as key compliance, risk management, internal auditing, and human resource management issues to HR, which after all, is the real purpose of HR audits.

An understanding of how to ask these questions should be out of the realization that no two employees that HR auditing policies are focused on are alike. This way, Ronald will give clarity on the distinguishing nature of HR auditing.

HR auditing from the ERM perspective

A core aspect of HR auditing is that it should be inseparably linked to Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) for it to become effective and successful. To make this happen, HR auditing should take a broader and comprehensive view of human capital risks bring the interrelationships and interactions between HR and other functions relating to management and the organization in alignment with each other.

Ronald will explain these, as well as the ways by which HR auditing can help the organization identify and capitalize on potential opportunities and reduce risks.

HR professionals and others related to HR auditing, such as CFO’s, Internal Auditors, External Auditors, Risk Managers, Compliance Officers and COOs can benefit from the lessons learnt at this seminar.

He will cover the following areas at this seminar:

o  Review an overview of employment related risk management and HR Audits

o  Assess human capital risks

o  Develop HR metrics

o  Explore the HR audit model

o  Assess strategic alignment

o  Assess HR management related documents

o  Assess HR management processes and practices

o  Review the practical applications of HR audits.