How Americans get their health insurance

With Obamacare firmly in the crosshairs of Republican lawmakers, the debate around U.S. healthcare is at a fever pitch.

While there is no shortage of opinions on the best route forward, the timeliness of the debate also gives us an interesting chance to dive into some of the numbers around healthcare – namely how people even get coverage in the first place.

How Americans get healthcare

The following infographic shows a breakdown of how Americans get healthcare coverage, based on information from Census Bureau’s surveys.

Put together by Axios, it shows the proportion of Americans getting coverage from employers, Medicaid, Medicare, non-group policies, and other public sources. The graphic also includes the 9% of the population that is uninsured, as well.

visual 1Axios via Visual Capitalist

The following definitions for each category above come from the Kaiser Family Foundation, a non-profit that uses the Census Bureau’s data to put together comprehensive estimates on healthcare in the country:

Employer-Based: Includes those covered by employer-sponsored coverage either through their own job or as a dependent in the same household.

Medicaid: Includes those covered by Medicaid, the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and those who have both Medicaid and another type of coverage, such as dual eligibles who are also covered by Medicare.

Medicare: Includes those covered by Medicare, Medicare Advantage, and those who have Medicare and another type of non-Medicaid coverage where Medicare is the primary payer. Excludes those with Medicare Part A coverage only and those covered by Medicare and Medicaid (dual eligibles).

Other Public: Includes those covered under the military or Veterans Administration.

Non-Group: Includes individuals and families that purchased or are covered as a dependent by non-group insurance.

Uninsured: Includes those without health insurance and those who have coverage under the Indian Health Service only.

Healthcare mix by state

Here’s another look at how Americans get healthcare coverage on a state-by-state basis.

This time the graphic comes from Overflow Data and it simply shows the percent of buyers in each state that receive health coverage from public sources:

Oddly, the state that gets the highest proportion of public health coverage (New Mexico, 46.6%) is kitty-corner to the state with the lowest proportion of public health coverage (Utah, 21.3%).

Why the debate is paramount

If you ask some people what is going on with U.S. healthcare, they will tell you that things are going “sideways” – that costs are going up, but care is not improving anywhere near the same pace.

Here’s a graphic we published last year from Max Roser that puts this sentiment in perspective:

us healthcare systemVisual Capitalist via Our World in Data

It’s fair to say that care has been going sideways in the U.S. for some time, and the stakes couldn’t be higher.

So, what needs to be done to fix the problem?

Read the original article on Visual Capitalist. Get rich, visual content on business and investing for free at the Visual Capitalist website, or follow Visual Capitalist on TwitterFacebook, or LinkedIn for the latest. Copyright 2017. Follow Visual Capitalist on Twitter.

Human factors as a factor in medical devices 2017

The ANSI/AAMI HE75:2009 document describes human factors as the way in which the elements of human knowledge, such as emotional, intellectual, and physical and the sensory are used to optimize the production of devices, systems, and many others concerned with them. Human factors take not only the ways in which these human elements are used to raise productions, but also the way in which the limitations of these factors come into play. It is a field that is essentially concerned about the interaction between humans and devices or machines.

Source

Given the nature of this description, it is not surprising that human factors are important to areas such as design and aesthetics. It is an important aspect of user interface. User interface has gained a lot of acceptability and popularity following the emergence of the field of IT, but it can be used in a number of other areas. Since there is almost no area of production or science in which the user does not come into the picture; human factors can be a major factor in creating and shaping user interface for a number of products.

A major factor in medical devices

In the area of medical devices, human factors come into play in a prominent way. Although, strictly speaking, medical devices are not products into which the aesthetics is considered critical in determining consumer behavior in the way it is for say, clothing; design is an indispensable factor. Design plays a very major role in the user interface of medical devices, because these products have to be designed to absolutely precise specifications. A small deviation or variation can cause harm to humans, given the nature of the uses of medical devices. Errors can result in major consequences for patients, and subsequently, to the organization manufacturing the devices.

When it comes to medical devices, the FDA has the primary responsibility of regulating them with the intention of ensuring their safety and effectiveness. Incorporating the principles of human factors into medical devices ensures that the product meets specification, design and quality standards and thus becomes faster and less expensive to market. On account of this, human factors are becoming part of the design and development, as well as of the supplementary aspects of medical devices, such as Instructions for Use, labeling and even training.

FDA’s regulations talk about human factors in medical devices

21 CFR 820.30 emphasizes that human factors need to be taken into consideration for the following:

–       Design input: Ensuring that the needs of the patient and any others who may use the product are taken into consideration

–       Design verification: Making sure that the criteria for performance set for the medical are being consistently met, and

–       Design validation: Ensuring that the device conform to predefined user needs as well as intended uses, as also making sure that testing is carried out to ensure this function. Software validation and risk analysis are part of this testing.

In addition, the FDA has also emphasized the area of human factors in medical devices in many guidance documents and a number of upcoming Draft Guidance documents.

Explore the area of human factors in medical devices

Curious about how human factors play a role in medical devices? Want to explore the area in-depth and stretch your knowledge and imagination of human factors in medical devices? A seminar that is being organized by GlobalCompliancePanel, a leading provider of professional trainings for the areas of regulatory compliance will offer this learning.

The Director of this seminar is Virginia A. Lang, Principal and Founder HirLan, Inc. and HirLan International SA. Over the course of these two days, Virginia will cover all the important areas relating to human factors in medical devices. To enroll for this important learning session, just log on to

Human Factors and Predicate Combination Products. This course has been pre-approved by RAPS as eligible for up to 12 credits towards a participant’s RAC recertification upon full completion.

A complete explanation of regulations and uses of human factors in medical devices

The core aim of this seminar is to familiarize participants with the way in which human factors can be applied into medical devices. Towards covering this, she will explain all the current and upcoming human factors requirements, using which, participants will learn how to keep costs under control and reduce the time for the manufacture and marketing of their products. Those in charge of crucial functions in medical devices, such as Quality Assurance, Regulatory Affairs, Device Engineering, Device Manufacturing and Pharma/Medical Devices will gain a great deal of learning from this seminar.

Virginia will cover the following areas at this seminar:

o  Overview of Human Factors and the FDA perspective

o  Human Factors Methods and Device Product Life Cycle

o  Human Factors and Risk Analysis & Management

o  Human Factors: What Devices Require Human Factors Evaluation and Validation?

 Human Factors and Combination Products

o  Human Factors and Combination Products Submitted in an ANDA.